hawkridge

Fred M. Hawkridge, Ph.D.

Emeritus Faculty
fmhawkri@vcu.edu

Experience

Postdoctoral with T. Kuwana at Case Western Reserve University and Ohio State University, 3/71 – 8/72.
Ph.D. with H. H. Bauer, University of Kentucky, 6/71.
B. S., University of Georgia, 6/66.  Chemistry
Augusta Junior College, 9/62 – 5/64.

Experience 

Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry, University of Southern Mississippi, 9/72 – 8/75
Visiting Scientist, C. F. Kettering Lab 6/75 – 8/75 with Bacon Ke.
Assistant Professor (8/76-8/78), Associate Professor (8/78-8/81)
Professor (8/81-present) Department of Chemistry, VCU.
Professor (8/85-present), Department of Biochemistry, VCU
Visiting Professor, Department of Chemistry, U. of Delaware, 9/81 – 5/82
Chair, Department of Chemistry, VCU 7/98 – 7/05
Executive Associate Dean for Research and Graduate Affairs, College of Humanities and Sciences, VCU 7/05 – 8/08.
Interim Dean, College of Humanities and Sciences, 8/08 – present
National Science Foundation, 8/89 – 7/90, 8/95 – 8/99 Program Officer in the Analytical and Surface Chemistry Program, Division of Chemistry.

Honors

Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Fellowship, 1987, with Professor Isao Taniguchi, Kumamoto University, Japan 
Distinguished Scholar Award, College of Humanities and Sciences, VCU, 1988
Phi Kappa Phi, elected by VCU Chapter 1991
Creativity Extension, National Science Foundation, 1989-91
Invited by Norman Hackerman to be a Divisional Editor of Organic & Biological Chemistry for The Journal of The                  Electrochemical Society on March 3, 1989.  Declined, pending year at NSF.
Ph.D. Honoris Causa, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia, 1993.
A. Benedetti-Pichler Award from the American Microchemical Society, November 2002, for Outstanding                                   Contributions to the Field of Microchemistry
ACS Division of Analytical Chemistry Award for Distinguished Service in the Advancement of Analytical Chemistry, September 2003, Sponsored by Waters Corporation
Distinguished Alumni Award, Department of Chemistry, University of Georgia, October 1, 2010

Publications and Patents:

1.      H. H. Bauer, D. Britz, F. M. Hawkridge and A. K. Shallal, “Nega­tive AC Polarographic Waves: Phase Selective Polarograms,” Rev. Polarog. (Kyoto), 18, 141(1971).

2.      F. M. Hawkridge and H. H. Bauer, “Effects of Direct Current Polaro­graphic Maxima on   Alternating Current Waves,” Anal. Chem., 43, 768(1971).

3.      F. M. Hawkridge and H. H. Bauer, “Kinetics and Mechanistic Study of the Reduction of Copper (II) in Lithium Nitrate Using Alternating Current Polarography,” Anal. Chem., 44, 364(1972).

4.      F. M. Hawkridge, T. W. Holt and H. H. Bauer, “Polarographic Maxima of the First Kind: Characterization in the Absence of Resistance-Controlled Currents,” Anal. Chim. Acta, 58, 203(1972).

5.      D. Meyerstein, F. M. Hawkridge and T. Kuwana, “On the Spectroelectro­chemical Characterization of the Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Cu(II) Ethylene Diamine,” J. Electroanal. Chem., 40, 377(1972).

6.      F. M. Hawkridge and T. Kuwana, “Indirect Coulometric Titration of Biological Electron   Transport Components,” Anal. Chem., 45, 1021(1973).

7.      J. C. McPherson, Jr., R. G. Ellison, H. N. Davis, F. M. Hawkridge, L. T. Ellison, “The Metabolic Acidosis Resulting from Intravenous Tetracycline Administration,” Proc. Soc. Exptl. Med., 145, 450 (1974).

8.      B. Ke, F. M. Hawkridge and S. Sahu, “Redox Titration of Fluorescence Yield of Photosystem     II,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 73, 2211(1976).

9.      B. Ke, E. Dolan, K. Sugahara, F. M. Hawkridge, S. Demeter and E. R. Shaw, “Electrochemical    and Kinetic Evidence for a Transient Electron Acceptor in the Photochemical Charge Separation in Photosystem I,” Plant and Cell Physiol., 187(1977).

10.    F. M. Hawkridge and B. Ke, “An Electrochemical Thin-Layer Cell for Spectroscopic Studies of Photosynthetic Electron-Transport Components,”  Anal. Biochem., 78, 76(1977).

11.    H. L. Landrum, R. T. Salmon and F. M. Hawkridge, “A Surface Modified Gold Minigrid Electrode Which Heterogeneously Reduces Spinach Ferredoxin,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 99, 3154(1977).

12.    F. M. Hawkridge, J. E. Pemberton and H. N. Blount, “Small Volume, High Performance Cell for Nonaqueous Spectroelectrochemistry,” Anal. Chem., 49, 1646(1977).

13.    J. F. Stargardt, H. L. Landrum and F. M. Hawkridge, “The Reversible Heterogeneous Reduction and Oxidation of Sperm Whale Myoglobin Using a Surface Modified Gold Minigrid Electrode,” Anal. Chem., 50, 930(1978).

14.    L. H. Rickard, H. L. Landrum and F. M. Hawkridge, “A Mediated Electrochemical Redox Study of Soluble Spinach Ferredoxin Using Optically Coupled Methods,” Bioelectrochem. Bioenerget., 5, 676(1978).

15.    A. L. Wade, F. M. Hawkridge and H. P. Williams, “Direct Determination of  Pentachlorophenol by Differential Pulse Polarography,” Anal. Chim. Acta, 105, 91(1979).

16.    D. E. Albertson, H. N. Blount and F. M. Hawkridge, “The Spectroelectrochemical Determination of Heterogeneous Electron Transfer Rate Con­stants,” Anal. Chem., 51, 556(1979).

17.    U. S. Patent #4,144,143, F. M. Hawkridge and H. L. Landrum, VCU, “Electro­lytic Production of a Stable Methyl Viologen Film.”

18.    R. Singleton, Jr., L. L. Campbell and F. M. Hawkridge, “Cytochrome c3 from the Sulfate Reducing Anaerobe, Desulfovibrio africanus ‘Benghazi’: Purification and Properties,” J. Bacteriol., 140, 893(1979).

19.    E. F. Bowden, F. M. Hawkridge and H. N. Blount, “Heterogeneous Electron Transfer Kinetics of Sperm Whale Myoglobin,” Bioelectrochem. Bioenerget., 7, 447(1980).

20.    R. T. Salmon and F. M. Hawkridge, “The Electrochemical Properties of Three Dipyridinium Salts as Mediators,” J. Electroanal. Chem., 112, 253(1980).

21.    C. D. Crawley and F. M. Hawkridge, “Spectroelectrochemical Determina­tion of Heterogeneous Electron Transfer Kinetics of Soluble Spinach Ferredoxin,”    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 99, 516(1981).

22.    E. E. Bancroft, H. N. Blount and F. M. Hawkridge, “Single Potential Step Chronoabsorptometric Determination of Heterogeneous Electron Transfer Kinetic Parameters of Quasi-Reversible Processes,” Anal. Chem., 53, 1962(1981).

23.    E. E. Bancroft, H. N. Blount and F. M. Hawkridge, “Derivative Cyclic Voltabsorptometry of Cytochrome c,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 101, 1331(1981).

24.    E. F. Bowden and F. M. Hawkridge, “Thin-Layer Spectroelectrochemical Kinetic Study of Viologen Cation Radicals Reacting at Hydrogen Evolving Gold and Nickel Electrodes,” J. Electroanal. Chem., 125, 367(1981).

25.    E. E. Bancroft, H. N. Blount and F. M. Hawkridge, “Spectroelectrochem­ical Determination of  Heterogeneous Electron Transfer Kinetic Parameters,” Adv. Chem. Ser., 201, 23(1982).

26.    E. F. Bowden, F. M. Hawkridge and H. N. Blount, “The Heterogeneous Electron Transfer Properties of Cytochrome c,” Adv. Chem. Ser., 201, 159(1982).

27.    E. F. Bowden, D. J. Cohen and F. M. Hawkridge, “Anaerobic Thin-Layer Electrochemical Cell for Planar Optically Transparent Electrodes,” Anal. Chem., 54, 1005(1982).

28.    E. F. Bowden, F. M. Hawkridge, J. F. Chlebowski, E. E. Bancroft, C. Thorpe and H. N. Blount, “The Cyclic Voltammetry and Derivative Cyclic Voltabsorptometry of Purified Horse Heart Cytochrome c,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 104, 7641(1982).

29.    J. F. Stargardt and F. M. Hawkridge, “Computer Decomposition of the UV-Visible Absorption Spectrum of Methyl Viologen Cation Radical and Methyl Viologen Radical Dimer Containing Solutions,” Anal. Chim. Acta, 146, 1(1983).

30.    J. F. Castner and F. M. Hawkridge, “Heterogeneous Electron Transfer Kinetic Parameters of Metalloproteins as Studied by Channel-Flow Hydrody­namic Voltammetry,” J. Electroanal. Chem., 143, 217(1983).

31.    C. D. Crawley and F. M. Hawkridge, “Rotating Disk Electrode Volt­ammetric Determination of the Heterogeneous Electron Transfer Kinetics of Soluble Spinach Ferredoxin,” J. Electroanal. Chem., 159, 313(1983).

32.    E. F. Bowden, F. M. Hawkridge and H. N. Blount, “Interfacial Electrochemistry of Cytochrome c at Tin Oxide, Gold and Platinum Electrodes,” J. Electroanal. Chem.,161, 355(1984).

33.    D. J. Cohen, F. M. Hawkridge, H. N. Blount and C. R. Hartzell, “The Heterogeneous Electron Transfer Properties of Cytochrome c and the Coupled Cytochrome c/Cytochrome c Oxidase/O2 System,” in “Charge and Field Effects in Biological Systems,” M. J. Allen and P. N. R. Usherwood, eds., Abacus, Tonbridge, United Kingdom, 1984, pp. 19-31.

34.    W. R. Heineman, F. M. Hawkridge and H. N. Blount, “Spectroelectrochem­istry at Optically Transparent Electrodes,” in Electroanalytical Chemistry, A. J. Bard, ed.,Marcel Dekker, New York, Vol. 13, 1984, 1-113.

35.    F. M. Hawkridge, “Electrochemical Cells,” in Techniques in Electroanalytical Chemistry, P. T. Kissinger and W. R. Heineman, eds., Marcel Dekker, New York, 1984, pp. 327-366.

36.    E. F. Bowden, F. M. Hawkridge and H. N. Blount, “Electrochemical Aspects of Bioenergetics,” in Comprehensive Treatise of Electrochemistry, J. O’M. Bockris, B. Conway and E. Yeager, eds., Plenum Press, New York, Vol. 10, 1985, pp. 297-346.

37.     K. B. Koller and F. M. Hawkridge, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 107, 7412- 7417(1985). Temperature and Electrolyte Effects on the Electron Transfer Reactions of Cytochrome c.

38.   R. C. Long, F. M. Hawkridge and C. R. Hartzell, J. Electroanal. Chem., 198, 89-98(1986).  The   Indirect Coulometric Titration of Cytochrome c Oxidase with Cytochrome c.

39.    E. E. Bancroft, H. N. Blount and F. M. Hawkridge, Anal. Chem., 58, 2944-2948(1986).  Asymmetric Double Potential Step Chronoabsorptometric Determination of Heterogeneous    Electron Transfer Kinetic Parameters.

40.    K. B. Koller, F. M. Hawkridge, G. Faque and J. LeGall, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.,         145, 619-624(1987).  Direct Electron Transfer Reactions of Cytochrome c553 from Desulfovibrio Vulgaris Hildenborough at Indium Oxide Electrodes.

41.    D. E. Reed and F. M. Hawkridge, Anal. Chem., 59, 2334-2339(1987).  The Direct Electron Transfer Reactions of Cytochrome c at Silver Electrodes.

42.    B. C. King and F. M. Hawkridge, J. Electroanal. Chem., 237, 81-92(1987).   An Electrochemical Study of Myoglobin Electron Transfer and Oxygen Binding Reactions.

43.    K. B. Koller and F. M. Hawkridge, J. Electroanal. Chem., 239, 291-306(1988). The Effects of Temperature, pH and Electrolyte on the Electron Transfer Reactions of Cytochrome c at Indium Oxide Elec­trodes.

44.    I. Taniguchi, S. Miyamoto, S. Tomimura and F. M. Hawkridge, J. Electro­anal. Chem., 240, 333-339(1988).  Mediated Electron-Transfer of Lactate Oxidase and Sarcosine Oxidase with Octacyanotungstate(IV) and Octacyano­molybdate(IV).

45.    S. Sun, D. E. Reed and F. M. Hawkridge, in “Redox Chemistry and Interfacial Behavior of  Biological Molecules,” G. Dryhurst and K. Niki (eds.)., Plenum Publishing, New York, 1988, pp. 47-61.  “A Study of the Effects of Ionic Strength and Anion Binding on the Reduction Potential of Cytochrome c Using Microelectrodes.”

46.    B. C. King, D. E. Reed, S. Sun, J. Terner and F. M. Hawkridge, “Proceedings of The Seventh Australian Electrochemistry Conference,” 1988, The University of New South Wales, New South Wales, Australia, pp. 241-244.  “Electrochemical Studies of Heme Protein Electron Transfer Rea­ctions.”

47.    R. C. Long, F. M. Hawkridge, J. F. Chlebowski and C. R. Hartzell, J. Electroanal. Chem., 256, 111-125(1988).  The Temperature Dependence and Thermal Denaturation of the Cytochrome  c/Cytochrome c Oxidase/­Dioxygen System, An Electrochemical Investigation.

48.    S. Sun, D. E. Reed, J. K. Cullison, L. H. Rickard and F. M. Hawkridge, “Electron Transfer Reactions of Cytochrome c at Metal Electrodes,” Mikrochimica Acta, III, 97-104(1988).  Invited paper for 50th Anniversary Issue.

49.    B. C. King and F. M. Hawkridge, “Electrochemical Evidence for Facili­tated Oxygen Transport by Myoglobin,” Talanta, 36, 331-334(1989). Invited for special issue on American Science.

50.    Y. Xiaoling, J. K. Cullison, S. Sun and F. M. Hawkridge, “Interfacial Electron Transfer Reactions of Heme Proteins,” in Charge and Field Effects in Biosystems, M. J. Allen, S. C. Cleary and F. M. Hawkridge (eds.), Plenum, New York, 1990, pp. 81-90.

51.    T. Ikeshoji, I. Taniguchi and F. M. Hawkridge, “Electrochemically Distinguished States of Ferricytochrome c and Their Transition with Changes in Temperature and pH.”  J. Electroanal. Chem., 270, 297-308(1989).

52.    M. J. Natan, D. Kuila, W. W. Baxter, Brian M. Hoffman, B. C. King and F. M. Hawkridge, “Heme Ligands Are Probes of Interprotein Electron Transfer Energetics in Mixed-Metal Hemoglobin Hybrids, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 112, 4081-4082(1990).

53.    Y. Xiaoling, S. Sun, I. Taniguchi and F. M. Hawkridge, “Double-Poten­tial Step Chronoelliptometry (DPS/CE): A Direct Measurement of the Rate of Conforma­tion in Cytochrome c,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 112, 5380-5381 (19­90).

54.    J. K. Cullison, F. M. Hawkridge, N. N. Nakashima and C. R. Hartzell, in “Charge and Field Effects in Biosystems – 3.” M. J. Allen, S. F. Cleary, A. E. Sowers and D. D. Shillady, eds., Burkhauser, Boston, 1992, pp. 29-40, “The Direct Electron Transfer Reactions of Cytochrome Oxidase Immobilized into a Membrane Modified Electrode.”

55.    I. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, M. Tominaga and F. M. Hawkridge. J.Electroanal. Chem., 333(1992) 331-338.  “Direct Electron Transfer of Horse Heart Myoglobin at an Indium Oxide Electrode.”

56.    I. Taniguchi, H. Kurihara, K. Yoshida, M. Tominaga and F. M. Hawkridge, Denki Kagaku, 12(1992) 1043-1049.  “Electrochemistry of Cytochrome c Components at Indium Oxide and Promoter Modified Electrodes.”

57.    B. C. King, F. M. Hawkridge and B. M. Hoffman, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 114(1992) 10603-10608.  “Electrochemical Studies of Cyanometmyoglobin and Metmyoglobin: Implications for Long-    Range Electron Transfer in Proteins.”

58.    X. Yuan, F. M. Hawkridge and J. F. Chlebowski, J. Electroanal. Chem., 350(1993) 29-42. “Thermodynamic and Kinetic Studies of Cytochrome c from Different Species.”

60.    J. K. Cullison, F. M. Hawkridge, N. Nakashima, S. Yoshikawa, Langmuir, 10(1994) 877-882. “A Study of Cytochrome c Oxidase in Lipid Bilayer Membranes on Electrode Surfaces.”

61.    K. Nishiyama and F. M. Hawkridge, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 205(1994) 1724-1728.  “Kinetics of Conformation Change in Cyanometmyoglobin Following Electron Transfer as Monitored by Magnetically Induced Circular Dichroism Spectrometry.

62.    P. L. Torkornoo and F. M. Hawkridge, Denki Kagaku, 5(1995) 390-394.  “The Unfolding Effects of Native Myoglobin in Aqueous Urea Studied by Cyclic Voltammetry and Ultraviolet and Visible Absorption Spectroscopy.” Invited article.

63.    F. M. Hawkridge and I. Taniguchi, Comments on Inorganic Chemistry, 17(1995) 163-187.  “The Direct Electron Transfer Reactions of Cytochrome c at Electrode Surfaces.”  Invited

64.    F. M. Hawkridge, “Electrochemical Cells,” in Techniques in Electroanalytical Chemistry, P. T. Kissinger and W. R. Heineman, eds., Marcel Dekker, New York, 1996, pp. 267-291.

65.    J. D. Burgess and F. M. Hawkridge, Langmuir, 13(1997) 3781-3786.  “Octadecyl Mercaptan Sub-monolayers on Silver Electrodeposited on Gold Quartz Crystal Microbalance Electrodes.”

66.    D. J. Cohen, B. C. King and F. M. Hawkridge, J. Electroanal. Chem., 447(1998) 53-62.           “Spectroelectrochemical and Electrochemical Determination of Ligand Binding and Electron Transfer Properties of Myoglobin, Cyanomyoglobin, and Imidazolemyoglobin.”

67.    J. D. Burgess, M. C. Rhoten and F. M. Hawkridge, Langmuir, 14(1998) 2467-2475. “Cytochrome c Oxidase Immobilized in Stable Supported Lipid Bilayer Membranes.”

68.    J. D. Burgess, M. C. Rhoten and F. M. Hawkridge, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 120(1998) 4488-4491.           “Interconversion between Resting and Pulsed Cytochrome c Oxidase in Electrode-Supported Lipid Bilayer Membranes.”

69.    E. Lloyd, A. G. Mauk, B. C. King and F. M. Hawkridge, Inorg. Chem., 37(1998)2888-2892.  “Effect of Electrostatic Alternations on the Ligand Binding and Electrochemical Properties of Horse Heart Myoglobin.”

70.    J. D. Burgess, V. W. Jones, M. D. Porter, M. C. Rhoten, and F. M. Hawkridge, Langmuir,14(1998) 6628-6631.  “Scanning Force Microscopy Images of Cytochrome c Oxidase Immobilized in an Electrode-Supported Lipid Bilayer Membrane.”

71.    L. Duah-Williams and F. M. Hawkridge, J. Electroanal. Chem., 466(1999) 177.  “The Temperature Dependence of the Kinetics of Cyanide Dissociation from the Cyanide Complex of Myoglobin Studied by Cylclic Voltammetry.”

72.    M. C. Rhoten, J. D. Burgess, and F. M. Hawkridge, Electrochim. Acta, 45(2000) 2855-2860 .  “Temperature and pH Effects on Cytochrome c Oxidase Immobilized in an Electrode Supported Lipid Bilayer Membrane.”

73.    F. M. Hawkridge and I. Taniguchi, “Electrochemistry of Heme Proteins,” in “The Porphyrin Handbook,” K. M. Kadish, K. M. Smith, and R. Guilard (Eds.) Academic Press, New York, Chapter 58, 2000,  pp. 191-202.  Review Chapter.

74.    M. C. Rhoten, J. D. Burgess, and F. M. Hawkridge, J. Electroanal. Chem., 534(2002) 143-150.  “The Reaction of Cytochrome C from Different Species with Cytochrome c Oxidase Immobilized in an Electrode Supported Lipid Bilayer Membrane.

75.    M. C. Rhoten, J M. Wilczek, and F. M. Hawkridge, J. Electroanal. Chem., 535(2002) 97-106. “The Reaction of Cytochrome c with Bovine and Bascillus stearothermophilus Cytochrome c Oxidase Immobilized in Electrode-Supported Lipid Bilayer Membranes”

76.    J. D. Burgess and F. M. Hawkridge, “Direct Electron Transfer Reactions of Proteins and Enzymes at Electrodes,”  in “Bioanalytical Electrochemistry,” A. Brajter-Toth and J. Q. Chambers (Eds.), Marcel Dekker, 2002, pp. 109-142.

77.    L. Su, F. M. Hawkridge, and M. C. Rhoten, Chemistry & Biodiversity,  1(2004) 1281-1288.           “Electroreduction of oxygen by cytochrome c oxidase immobilized in electrode-supported lipid    bilayer membranes.”

78.    L. Su, J. B. Kelly, F. M. Hawkridge, and M. C. Rhoten, J. Electroanal. Chem., 580(2005) 241-248.  “Characterization of Cyanide Binding to Cytochrome c Oxidase Immobilized in Electrode-Supported Lipid Bilayer Membranes.”

79.    A. M. Pisarevsky, I. P. Polozova and F. M. Hawkridge, J. Appl. Chem.(Russian), 78(2005) 101-107.  “Chemical Oxygen Demand.”

80.    K. L. Lewis, L. Su, F. M. Hawkridge, K. R. Ward, and M. C. Rhoten, IEEE Sensors, 6(2006) 420-427.  “Immobilization of Cytochrome c Oxidase into Electrode-Supported Lipid Bilayer Membranes for in vitro Cytochrome c Sensing.”

81.    K. R. Ward, R. W. Barbee, J. Terner, R. R. Ivatury, F. M. Hawkridge, US Patent 7,113,814 B2,   “Tissue Interrogation Spectroscopy,” September 2006.

82.    K. R. Ward, S. Brahim, M.C. Rhoten, F. M. Hawkridge, International Patent Application, PCT/US 2006/060821, “Non-Biofouling, Universal Redox Electrode.”  November 2007

82.    US Patent 12/115,460, J. B. Kelly, F. M. Hawkridge, et al., “Detection of Small Ligands with  Metmyoglobin,” May 2008.

83.    US Patent AG01N2726Fl, K. R. Ward, F. M. Hawkridge, S. Brahim, K. L. Lewis, M. C. Rhoten, “Non-Biofouling, Universal Redox Electrode and Measurements System, May 2009.